A True Article of Valentine’s Day with Necessary Vocabulary Note

saint valentine
Saint Valentine

Valentine is a name. There were reportedly three early Christian saints named Valentine, but the one holiday likely comes from was a Roman priest during the 3rd century AD under Emperor Claudius II.
The true story of Valentine’s Day is not comprised of roses and cards. Instead, crime, imprisonment, and execution are at the genesis of our modern day love-Fest, dating back to the man whose martyrdom may have inspired the holiday. Valentine’s Day is named in honor of Saint Valentine, the patron saint of lovers who it is believed was killed on February, 14 AD 270. During that time, the Roman Empire was experiencing turmoil. This period saw the empire divided into three competing states, with the threat of invasion all around. With the Roman Empire hangs by a thread, Claudius needed all the brazen war power he could get.

The History of St Valentine's Day

For the reason, the Roman emperor Claudius II canceled all marriages in Roman, as he was having a hard time getting men to join the military, and he believed that married men, being emotionally attached their wives and families, did not make good soldiers, believing that unmarried soldiers fought better than married soldiers.

This is where St. Valentine comes in; the annoying priest who believed marriage to be a God-given sacrament. Saint began officiating marriages in secret, but, He was found out and imprisoned. Then, refusing to renounce his Christian beliefs. According to legend, during his imprisonment, he healed the daughter of his jailer off. An embellishment to this story states that before his execution, he wrote her a letter signed, “Love from your Valentine,” the first Valentine’s card.

The History of Valentine's Day

Valentine was martyred on Feb 14 270. This much we know. But when it comes to details about the life of St. Valentine, legend often supersedes fast. As you celebrate this Valentine’s Day, find out the truth about the man for whom the day is named. As well as some other intriguing facts about history’s most romantic holiday.

Necessary Vocabulary Notes

Ø Name / neɪm / (নে) n [a word or words that a particular person, animal, place or thing is known by] (নাম; আখ্যা; অবিধা): Are you changing your name when you get married.
   Nickname  (=ডাকনাম)                                                                                                                                                         
Surname / ˈsɜːrneɪm / (ˈছার্নে) n [the name that you share with other members of your family; last name] (কুলনাম; বংশ নাম): Her first name is Sarah but I do not know her surname. The teacher addresses the students by their surname.
   <SYN> Family name, Last name

<VERB> Name / neɪm / (নে) v {Pt. Pp. named / neɪmd / (নেড্‌)} [to give a name to Sb/Sth] v (নাম দেওয়া; নামকরন করা): the diesel engine, named after its inventor Rudolf Diesel. He named his son Raju.    
Ø Reportedly / rɪˈpɔːrtɪdli / (রিˈফোর্টিডলি) adv [according to what some people say] (বিবরণ অনুসারে; জনশ্রুতি অনুযায়ী): Earth is reportedly a very exciting place to live than other planets.

Ø Early / ˈɜːrli / (ˈআ্‌র্লি) adj [near the beginning of a period of time] (কোনো সময়ের প্রারম্ভে; গোড়ার দিকে; বহু প্রাচীন): If you arrived earlier, you would have more time.

Ø Saint / sent / (ছেন্ট) n [a person who has received an official honor from the Christian, especially the Roman Catholic church, for having lived in a good and holy way] (ঋষি; সাধু): the children were all named after saints.

Ø Likely / ˈlaɪkli / (ˈলাক্‌লি) adj [probable or expected] (সম্ভবত): Tickets are likely to be expensive.

Ø <PHR> come from Sth [= to start in a particular place or be produced from a particular thing] (উৎপত্তি হওয়া): This poem comes from his new book.

Ø Priest / priːst / (ফ্রীছট) n [a person who is qualified to perform religious duties and ceremonies in the Roman Catholic, in the Christian church] (খ্রিষ্টীয় পুরোহিত; যাজক): Many in the Anglican Church are still opposed to women priests.

Ø Emperor / ˈempərər / (ˈএম্‌প) n [the ruler of an empire] (সম্রাট): It is the tomb of Emperor Napoleon. 
<Fem> Empress / ˈempərəs / (ˈএমপ্রছ্‌) n [a woman who is the ruler of an empire] (সম্রাঞ্জী; সম্রাটপত্নী): the Empress of March.

Ø Comprise / kəmˈpraɪz / (ম্‌ˈপ্রা) v [to have Sb/Sth as parts or members] (গঠিত হওয়া বা অন্তর্ভুক্ত করা): the committee comprised of 10 members.

<SYN> Consist of

Ø Instead / ɪnˈsted / (ন্‌ˈছ্‌টেড) adv [in the place of Sb/Sth] (বিকল্প হিসাবে; স্থলে; বদলে): She did not reply, instead, she turned on his heel and left the room.

Ø Imprison / ɪmˈprɪzn / (ইম্‌ˈপ্রিজ্‌ন) v [to put Sb in prison or another place from which they escape] (কারারুদ্ধ করা; কয়েদ করা): He was imprisoned in 2000 for attempted murder.
        <SYN> jail

   <NOUN> Imprisonment / ɪmˈprɪznmənt / (ম্‌ˈপ্রিজ্‌নম) n (কারারুদ্ধ; কয়েদ): to be sentenced to life imprisonment for murder.


Ø Execute / ˈeksɪkjuːt / (ˈএক্‌ছিকিউট) v [to kill Sb, especially as a legal punishment] (আইনবলে প্রাণ বধ করা): He was executed for treason.

Execution / ˌeksɪˈkjuːʃn / (ˌএক্‌ছিˈকিউশ্‌ন্‌) n [when someone is killed as a legal punishment] (মৃত্যুদণ্ড): The executions will be carried out by a firing squad.

Executioner /ˌeksɪˈkjuːʃənər / (ˌএক্‌ছিˈকিউশ ) n [a public official whose job is to execute criminals] (সরকারি ঘাতক বা জল্লাদ)

Ø Genesis / ˈdʒenəsɪs / (ˈজেনছিছ্‌) n [the beginning or origin of Sth] (সূচনা)

Ø <PHY> A love fest [= an event in which people show too much affection for each other that way not be genuine] (পরম-উল্লাসের)
    <SYN> Dating

Ø Martyr / ˈmɑːrtər / (ˈমা্‌র্টর) n [a person who suffers very much or is killed because of their religious or political beliefs] (শহীদ; ধর্ম যুদ্ধ বা কোনো মহৎকাজে আত্নোৎসর্গকারী): a martyr to the cause of freedom.

Martyrdom / ˈmɑːrtərdəm / (ˈমা্‌র্টরডম্‌) n [when someone suffers or is killed for their beliefs] (শহীদত্ব)

Ø Inspire / ɪnˈspaɪər / (ন্‌ˈছ্‌পার্‌) v [to give Sb the desire, confidence or enthusiasm to do Sth well] (উদ্দীপ্ত / উদ্ধুদ্ধ করা; অনুপ্রাণীত করা): His confident leadership inspired his followers.

Inspiration / ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃn / (ˌন্‌ছ্‌পˈরেইশ্‌ন্‌) n [someone or something that gives you hopes for doing something] (প্রেরণা; অনুপ্রেরণা): She went to church, perhaps seeking divine inspiration.

Ø Patron / ˈ peɪtrən / (ˈপেঠ্র) n [a person or group that supports an activity or organization, especially by giving money] (পৃষ্ঠপোষক; উৎসাহদাতা): Prince Raju is a well-known patron of several charities.

Patronage / ˈpætrənɪdʒ / (ˈপ্যাঠ্রনিজ্‌) n [the support given to an organization by someone] (পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা; সমর্থক; উৎসাহদাতা): The Conservative party enjoys the patronage of much of the business community.

Patronize / ˈpeɪtrənaɪz / (ˈপেঠ্রনাজ্‌) v [to help a particular person, organization or activity by giving them money] (পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা করা; উৎসাহ প্রদান করা): He patronizes many contemporary world famous journalist.

Ø Experience / ɪkˈspɪriəns / (ˈছ্‌পিরিন্‌ছ্‌) v [to have a particular situation affect you or happen to you] (কোনোকিছু সম্পর্কে আভিঞ্জতা লাভ করা): The country experienced a foreign currency shortage for several months.

Ø Turmoil / ˈtɜːrmɔɪl / (ˈটা্‌র্মল্‌) n [a state of great anxiety, uncertainty or disorder] (গোলো্যোগ; হাঙ্গামা; বিশৃঙ্খলা): The country was hurled into the turmoil of another general election.

Ø Empire / ˈempaɪər / (ˈএম্‌পাইএ) n [a group of countries or states that are controlled by one ruler or government] (সাম্রাজ্য): Mughal empire. The Ottoman Empire began to decline in the late eighteenth century.

Ø Invade / ɪnˈveɪd / (ˈভেড্‌) v [to enter a country, city by force with large numbers of soldiers in order to take possession of it] (আক্রমণের উদ্দেশ্যে<কোনো দেশে> সশস্ত্র বাহিনী নিয়ে প্রবেশ করা; হানা দেওয়া; উপদ্রব করা): When did the Romans invade Britain?

Invasion / ɪnˈveɪʒn / (ইনˈভেজ্‌ন্‌) n [the act of an army entering another country by force in order to take control of it] (হামলা; বহিরাক্রমণ; উপদ্রব): the German invasion of Poland in 1939.

Invader / ɪnˈveɪdər / (ইনˈভের) n [an army or country that uses force to enter and take control of another country] (হানাদার; উপদ্রবকারী; হামলাকারী): The foreign invaders were finally defeated by allied forces.

Ø <IDM> All around [= in every way] (চতুর্দিকে): It has been a good day all around. We heard shouts of joy from all around.

Ø <IDM> Hang by a thread [=< of a person’s life> to be in great danger] (< কোনো ব্যক্তির ভাগ্য ইত্যাদি সম্বন্ধে> আত্যন্ত নাজুক অবস্থায় থাকা): The mayor’s political future has been hanging by a thread since the fraud scandal.

Ø Brazen / ˈbreɪzn / (ˈব্রেজ্‌ন) adj [bold and without shame] (সাহসী ও নির্লজ্জ): He had become brazen about the whole affair.

Ø <PHY> Come in [= to become involved in Sth or to become involved in a situation, story or plan] (কোনোকিছুর সাহায্যার্থে এগিয়ে আসা): We need expert advice, and that’s where you come in.

Ø Annoy / əˈnɔɪ / (ˈ) v [to make someone angry] (বিরক্ত বা জ্বালাতন করা; অসন্তুষ্ট করা): Her constant joking was beginning to annoy him.<SYN> Irritate; Bother

Annoyance / əˈnɔɪəns / (ˈয়এন্‌ছ্‌) n [the feeling of being slightly angry] (বিরক্তি; অসন্তোষ; বিরক্তকর বস্তু বা বিষয়): He stamped her foot in annoyance.

<SYN> Irritation

Annoyed / əˈnɔɪd / (ˈ) adj [slightly angry] (বিরক্তি; অসন্তোষ্টু): She was beginning to get very annoyed with me about my carelessness.
     <SYN> Irritated

Ø Sacrament / ˈsækrəmənt / (ˈছ্যাক্রনট্‌) n [an important religious ceremony such as marriage, baptism or communion] (সংস্কার; ধর্মীয় ভাবে পবিত্র): to receive the sacrament of Christian baptism.

Ø Officiate / əˈfɪʃieɪt / (ˈফিশিএট্‌) v [to do the official duties at a public or religious ceremony] (কোনো অফিস বা পদের সঙ্গে সম্পৃক্ত দায়িত্ব পালন করা): He baptized children and officiated at weddings.

Ø <PHR> Find out [= to discover that Sb has done Sth wrong] (অপকর্মে লিপ্ত থাকাকালে কাউকে ধরে ফেলা): The police succeeded in finding the hijackers out.

Ø Renounce / rɪˈnaʊns / (রিˈনাউন্‌ছ্‌) v [to state officially that you are no longer going to keep a title, position, etc.] (<দাবি, অধিকার, দখল ইত্যাদি >আনুষ্ঠানীকভাবে ছেড়ে দেওয়া বা ছেড়ে দিতে সম্মোত হওয়া): William Raju renounces the throne in favor of his son.
         <SYN> Give up

Ø According to / ˈəkɔːrdɪŋtə / (ˈকোর্ডিং টা) pre [as stated or reported by Sb/Sth] (অনুসারে; মতে): According to our records you owe us $ 500.

Ø Legend / ˈledʒənd / (ˈলেজন্‌ড্‌) n [a very old story, that not always true, that people tell about a famous event or person] (লৌকিক উপাখ্যান; লোক কাহিনী): Legend has it that the lake was formed by the tears of a God.
     <SYN> Myth

Ø Heal / hiːl / (হীল) v [to cure Sb who is ill/sick; to make Sb feel happy again] (<কোনো ব্যক্তিকে> সুস্থ/ রোগমুক্তু/ নিরাময় করা): the story of Jesus healing ten lepers of their disease.

Ø Embellish / ɪmˈbelɪʃ / (ইম্‌ˈবেলিশ) v [to make something more beautiful or interesting by adding something to it] (সুন্দর করা; অলঙ্কৃত করা; চুমকি বসানো): The ceiling was embellished with flowers and leaves.

<SYN> Decorate

Embellishment / ɪmˈbelɪʃmənt / (ইম্‌ˈবেলিশমনট্‌) n (আলঙ্করণ) Good pasta needs very little embellishment.
Ø Supersede / ˌsuːpərˈsiːd / (ˌছূপˈর্ছীড্‌) v [to take the place of Sth/Sb that is considered to be old-fashioned or no longer the best available] (<কোনো ব্যাক্তি বা বস্তুর >স্থলাভিষিক্ত বা স্থলে ব্যবহার করা): Most of the old road has been superseded by the great Interstate highways.
Ø Intriguing / ɪnˈtriːgɪŋ / (ˈট্রীগিং) adj [very interesting because of being unusual or not having an obvious answer] (অতিউৎসুক): These discoveries raise intriguing questions about birds.
Ø Romantic / roʊˈmæntɪk / (রৌˈম্যান্‌টিক্‌) adj [connected or concerned with love or a sexual relationship] (ভাববিলাসী; কল্পনা প্রবণ): I am not interested in a romantic relationship.

Noted from Wikipedia; Google Image; Oxford & Cambridge Dictionary

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